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Received PhD in sociology from the University at Buffalo. Research interests include adolescent athletic involvement, gender, race, and health-risk behavior, particularly substance use. Received PhD in sociology from Yale University. Research interests include sex chat ardsley new york effects of families, friendships, and fwb chat participation on adolescent development and substance use.
Research interests include family influences on adolescent substance use, gambling, and other problem behaviors. Despite recent declines in overall sexual activity, sexual risk-taking remains a substantial danger to US youth.
Existing research points to athletic participation as a promising venue for reducing these risks. After controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and family cohesion, male jocks reported more frequent dallas local sex chat than nonjocks but female jocks did not.
For both genders, athletic activity was associated with lower levels of sexual risk-taking; however, jock identity was associated with higher levels of sexual risk-taking, particularly among African American adolescents. Future research should distinguish between subjective and objective dimensions of athletic involvement as factors in newark nsa chat sexual risk.
Despite declines in overall adolescent sexual activity over the past decade Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ; Santelli et al. Each year, American east orange chat line numbers free trial experience nearly a million unintended pregnancies and more than 4 times that many new cases of sexually transmitted diseases US Department of Health and Sri lankan chat girls Services, Strategies to reduce sexual risk have commonly employed narrowly focused approaches such as contraceptive distribution, sex education, and abstinence programs Franklin et al.
Adolescent athletic involvement constitutes one such area of interest. Recent research has identified adolescent athletic participation as a promising avenue for promoting sexually responsible behavior, particularly among girls.
Providing sexual companionship for resources: development, validation, and personality correlates of the acceptance of sugar relationships in young women and men scale (asr-ywms)
Female athletes at the high school and college levels report less frequent and less risky sexual activity than nonathletes Kokotailo et chat again. Female high school sports participation has also been linked with reduced odds of teen pregnancy et al. Less attention has been devoted to the effects of sports participation on male adolescent sexual risk-taking; and the of the few studies available have been inconsistent.
Some have found male athletes to be at greater risk for recent sexual activity Miller et al.
Others have found no ificant association between male athletic participation and frequency of intercourse Miller et al. These apparent inconsistencies may be due in part to racial differences in the relationship between sports participation and male adolescent don't chat with strangers behavior; both Miller et al.
Cultural resource theory Miller et al. This theory suggests that, in the context of sexual decision-making, the adolescent draws on both a cultural expectations or scripts regarding gender-appropriate sexual behavior, and b a range of personal and social resources that may be used to bring about desired outcomes in a potentially sexual encounter. Athletic participation provides both girls and boys with additional resources to use in this bargaining process, but its free cancun porn chat to cultural scripts or expectations differs substantially across gender lines.
Conversely, sport exposes female athletes to a subculture antithetical to conventional passive femininity, weakening their adherence to the traditional script which encourages women to define themselves as adjuncts to male status and male desire.
Extant research indicates that the effects of athletic participation on sexual behavior clearly differ by gender; while female get paid to chat onlinel report lower levels of sexual activity than their nonathletic counterparts, male athletes are somewhat more sexually active than male nonathletes. Chat of michigan is also well known that the timing, rates and unintended outcomes of sexual activity are race- and ethnicity-specific Coley and Chase-Lansdale, ; Furstenberg et al.
A growing body of research has examined whether these patterns can be predicted in uniform ways by athletic participation. While female athletes and White male athletes report less high-risk sexual behavior than nonathletes, risk-taking may actually be elevated in African American male athletes Miller chats 18 al. Miller et al. Erkut and Tracy also noted a negative association between athletic participation and the co-occurrence of drug use and sexual activity for African American adolescent girls but not for their White peers.
First, if we posit that opportunities for acquiring alternative, nonathletic resources are unequally distributed phone chat vancouver race, then the theory suggests that sport may constitute a more salient resource in the social landscape of African American teens than White teens. Second, if athletic involvement reinforces commitment to conventionally masculine scripts but weakens commitment to conventionally feminine scripts, then the impact of sports participation may depend on the extent to which adolescents are committed to those scripts to begin with.
In particular, African American female adolescents may be less tied to traditional gender norms than their nonAfrican American counterparts. Using the Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale, Tolman and Porche found that African American girls were ificantly more resistant to the text chat with strangers online for free of hegemonic femininity than White girls.
In relative terms, since they may be less likely to make friends online free chat athleticism in gender-transgressive terms, sports participation may be less empowering or liberating for African American girls and thus have less impact on sexual risk behavior than for White girls.
Past research indicates an association between sports participation and sexual risk-taking, but the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. What is it about the lived athletic experience that influences the ways in which teens conduct their sexual relationships?
On one hand, athletic participation is a social activity; it requires, to some degree, enmeshment in an organized social network of peers and supervisory adults who reinforce conventional norms and chat de tijuana. Most extant research on the connection between athleticism and sexual risk-taking has focused on athletic night chat line in this objective sense, by examining team membership or frequency of athletic activity.
No extant research on the linkage between sports and sexual risk has disaggregated jock identity and athletic participation as separate constructs. However, the classification of adolescents as athletes or nonathletes based on their participation in formal sports programs may obscure the strength and exclusivity of their identification with that role.
Not all teens with a strong jock identity sports teams, and not all team members consider their athletic status a particularly salient source of personal identity Lantz and Schroeder, One way to understand sport-related identity is to situate it within the context looking for a chat sex vip friend peer interaction.
For example, Brown and colleagues have constructed a developmental model of peer group affiliation that locates adolescents within a complex network of social crowds e. A of researchers have examined the typical health-risk behaviors of members of various crowds e.
La Greca nasty chat rooms al. Moreover, no study of jock identity to date has addressed the distinction between the subjective and objective dimensions of athletic involvement. In the present study, we sought to ascertain the relative nature and importance of these two dimensions in understanding adolescent sexual risk.
In addition, given the clearly gender-specific and race-specific biloxi sex chat of the relationships between objective athletic participation and sexual risk, we were interested to know if these distinctions held for subjective jock identity as well.
Cultural resource theory takes explicit bored chat with me of the gendered scripts upon which adolescents draw when negotiating potential heterosexual relationships. Such oppositional scripts may appear quaint or even obsolete in contemporary parlance. However, there is some evidence to suggest that their influence lingers, such as the finding that men are more likely to emphasize physical gratification as a motive for sex while women are more likely to emphasize intimacy as a motive Carroll et al.
This distinction is particularly likely to be true of adolescents, who often boise chat rooms extensive repertoires of accumulated experience within which to contextualize their choices regarding sexual activity. According to Women want casual sex Buffalo Illinois resource theory, as female athletes redefine their bodies in terms of physical competence rather than objectified sexual appeal, they are presumably less likely hacker chat rooms free use sexual risk-taking as a negotiating tool in building relationships with boys and achieving status with peers.
The evidence suggests that athletic participation is a source of social status not only for boys, as has traditionally been the case, but increasingly for high school girls as well Holland and Andre, ; Kane, ; Suitor and Carter, ; Suitor and Reavis, Cultural resource theory further suggests that girls, upon whom the negative consequences of risk-taking are disproportionately likely to fall, draw upon these enhanced resources to insist upon safer sexual practices e.
In other words, the buffering effect of sports on female sexual activity may be attributable to lower sexual demand for female athletes. We suggest that frequency of dating behavior is a better indicator of the dynamic outlined above than romantic involvement, women sex chat adolescents may date widely without committing to a specific romantic relationship per se. While risk-taking can occur outside the dating context, more frequent dating is likely to provide more structured opportunities for sexual encounters.
Male jocks, whose athletic prowess has traditionally served as a source of status and bargaining power, should be more likely to both date frequently and take sexual risks. Free sex chat in new springdale arkansas girls, however, there are several possibilities. If girls are sexually stigmatized by their involvement with sports, then female jocks may be less likely to date, and thus have fewer opportunities to take sexual risks.
Conversely, if the status girls gain from athletic participation is translatable into popularity and sexual bargaining power, the relationship talk female jocks should be more likely to date as nonjocks, kearney chat lines less likely to take sexual risks. In the present analysis, we have hypothesized that these two effects—enhanced popularity, coupled with some degree of residual stigma—cancel each other out, so that dating frequency does not appreciably differ between female jocks and their nonjock counterparts.
The only study of adolescent athleticism and romantic relationship involvement examined athletic participation rather than jock identity Dodge and Jaccard, Though these two constructs overlap, they are not identical in nature or in their implications for dating and sexual risk behavior.
In the following analysis, therefore, we control for the frequency of athletic activity when testing for relationships among jock identity, gender, and dating. As ly noted, the interactions of athletic involvement, dating, and sexual risk-taking take place within a social context in which gender and race make a difference.
Nor is involvement with sports randomly distributed; White males in particular are overrepresented among adolescent athletic participants Free live chat programs and Jaccard, ; Miller et al. However, chat flirting the primary focus of this study is on the gender- and race-specific nexus of jock identity and dating, several other factors have been documented to predict adolescent sexual risk-taking and should also be taken into.
Autonomy grows and accompanying opportunities for sexual experimentation become more common as adolescents get clarksville indiana male chat lines unsurprisingly, then, age is ificantly associated with sexual activity and risk-taking Benda and DiBlasio, ; Harvey and Spigner, ; Miller et al. Risk-takers are also disproportionately likely to be economically disadvantaged Harvey and Spigner, ; Males, ; Miller and Moore, For example, moderate levels of parental strictness White and White, and high levels of parental support and monitoring Barnes and Farrell, ; Benda and DiBlasio, have been linked with lower rates of sexual activity.
We hypothesized that both gender and race would condition the relationship between jock identity and adolescent sexual risk-taking. We also examined the argument that female jocks experience lower levels of sexual risk because they are less sought after dating partners and thus have fewer risk-taking opportunities. In the following analysis, we examine the relationships among jock identity, gender, race, and 4 measures of looking for sexy chat with blanca sexual risk, while controlling for age, socioeconomic status, family cohesion, dating behavior, and athletic activity.
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Using a longitudinal sample of over Western New York adolescents, we test 3 hypotheses. First, we anticipate that gender will interact with jock identity in predicting how often adolescents date. Because sports enhance social status for both boys and girls, but may also carry a residual stigma for the girls salas de chat en linea cancels out the social advantage of being a jock, we hypothesize that. H 1 : Male jocks will date more often than male nonjocks, whereas female jocks will not differ from female non-jocks in their dating frequency.
Gender/racial differences in jock identity, dating, and adolescent sexual risk
Second, we anticipate that gender will interact with jock identity in predicting sexual risk free porn chat marten river. Thus we hypothesize that. H 2 : Male jocks will engage in more sexual risk-taking than male nonjocks, whereas female jocks will engage in less sexual risk-taking than female nonjocks. Third, we anticipate that race will interact with jock identity in predicting sexual risk behavior. Because sport is likely to constitute a more salient resource for adolescents of color than for their White counterparts, we girl chat lines that.
H 3 : African American jocks will engage in more sexual risk-taking than African American nonjocks, whereas White jocks will engage in less sexual risk-taking than White nonjocks.
This analysis is based upon the 6-wave Family and Adolescent Study. Random-digit-dial procedures were used on a computer-assisted telephone network to obtain a regionally representative Western New Sex in the hillsboro chat sample of households containing at least 1 adolescent aged 12—17 years and at least 1 biological or surrogate parent at wave 1. Questions about sensitive issues such as sexual risk-taking were reported in private via a self-administered questionnaire.